Contents

## Title: Detailed CPCL Chemical Engineering Examination Syllabus

### Chapter 1: Engineering Mathematics

Linear Algebra: Matrix algebra, Systems of linear equations, Eigen values, and eigenvectors.

Calculus: Functions of a single variable, Limit, continuity and differentiability, Taylor series, Mean value theorems, Evaluation of definite and improper integrals, Partial derivatives, Total derivative, Maxima and minima, Gradient, Divergence and Curl, Vector identities, Directional derivatives, Line, Surface and Volume integrals, Stokes, Gauss and Green’s theorems.

Differential equations: First order equations (linear and nonlinear), Higher order linear differential equations with constant coefficients, Cauchy’s and Euler’s equations, Initial and boundary value problems, Laplace transforms, Solutions of one-dimensional heat and wave equations, and Laplace equation.

Complex variables: Complex number, polar form of a complex number, triangle inequality.

Probability and Statistics: Definitions of probability and sampling theorems, Conditional probability, Mean, median, mode and standard deviation, Random variables, Poisson, Normal and Binomial distributions, and Linear regression analysis. Numerical Methods: Numerical solutions of linear and non-linear algebraic equations. Integration by trapezoidal and Simpson’s rule. Single and multi-step methods for the numerical solution of differential equations.

Chapter 2: Process Calculations and Thermodynamics

Steady and unsteady state mass and energy balances including multiphase, multicomponent, reacting, and non-reacting systems. Use of tie components; recycle, bypass and purge calculations; Gibb’s phase rule and degree of freedom analysis. First and Second laws of thermodynamics. Applications of first law to close and open systems. Second law and Entropy. Thermodynamic properties of pure substances: Equation of State and residual properties, properties of mixtures: partial molar properties, fugacity, excess properties, and activity coefficients; phase equilibria: predicting VLE of systems; chemical reaction equilibrium. Single-Phase Systems: Introductory concepts: Work, Heat, Reversible and Irreversible Processes; Equations of State and Generalized Correlations; Fluid Properties Estimation; Pure Component Phase Equilibria, Power and Refrigeration Cycles; Flow Processes;

Chapter 3: Fluid Mechanics and Mechanical Operations

Fluid statics, Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids, shell-balances including a differential form of Bernoulli equation and energy balance, Macroscopic friction factors, dimensional analysis, and similitude, flow through pipeline systems, flow meters, pumps and compressors, elementary boundary layer theory, flow past immersed bodies including packed and fluidized beds, Turbulent flow: fluctuating velocity, universal velocity profile and pressure drop. Particle size and shape, particle size distribution, size reduction and classification of solid particles; free and hindered settling; centrifuge and cyclones; thickening and classification, filtration, agitation, and mixing; conveying of solids. Basic Fluid Concepts: Dimensions and Units, Velocity and Stress Fields, Viscosity and surface tension, viscosity, Dimensional Analysis (Buckingham PI theorem), Types of flows, Methods of Analysis, Fluid Statics; Velocity potential, Boundary Layer Theory (Laminar), Viscous flows (past sphere), Integral Analysis: Mass, Energy (Bernoulli), Momentum (Impinging jet, pitot tube, Orifice meter, rotameter, pipe flow: f vs Re charts); Chem Engg Equipment: Piping systems (K factors, networks), Flow past immersed objects (Packed beds, Fluidised beds, sedimentation, Centrifugal separation, filtration), Pumps, Agitation and Mixing, (Power consumption, mixing times, scale up), Particulate solids, characterization, Other topics: Introduction to Turbulent Flows (Reynolds equations), Compressible flows, Compressors.

Chapter 4: Heat Transfer

Steady and unsteady heat conduction, convection and radiation, thermal boundary layer and heat transfer coefficients, boiling, condensation, and evaporation; types of heat exchangers and evaporators and their process calculations. Design of double pipe, shell and tube heat exchangers, and single and multiple effect evaporators. Heaters and Direct transfers-cooling towers

Chapter 5: Mass Transfer

Fick’s laws, molecular diffusion in fluids, mass transfer coefficients, film, penetration, and surface renewal theories; momentum, heat, and mass transfer analogies; stage-wise and continuous contacting and stage efficiencies; HTU & NTU concepts; design and operation of equipment for distillation, absorption, leaching, liquid-liquid extraction, drying, humidification, dehumidification, and adsorption.

Distillation: batch distillation, continuous fractionation, calculations with multiple feeds and withdrawals; Special distillation techniques (azeotropic, extractive, etc.) steam and molecular distillation; Tray hydrodynamics and efficiencies; Liquid-Liquid extraction: Calculations with and without reflux for the immiscible and partially miscible system; Gas absorption: packed tower design, the effect of reaction; Simultaneous heat and mass transfer: Drying; Design of cooling towers; Adsorption: Types and nature of adsorption; Freundlich isotherm; Membrane processes: Gas separation processes; reverse osmosis processes.

Chapter 6: Chemical Reaction Engineering

Theories of reaction rates; kinetics of homogeneous reactions, interpretation of kinetic data, single and multiple reactions in ideal reactors, non-ideal reactors; residence time distribution, single parameter model; non-isothermal reactors; kinetics of heterogeneous catalytic reactions; diffusion effects in catalysis.

Chapter 7: Instrumentation and Process Control

Measurement of process variables; sensors, transducers and their dynamics, process modeling and linearization, transfer functions and dynamic responses of various systems, systems with the inverse response, process reaction curve, controller modes (P, PI, and PID); control valves; analysis of closed-loop systems including stability, frequency response, controller tuning, cascade, and feed-forward control.

Chapter 8: Plant Design and Economics

Principles of process economics and cost estimation including depreciation and total annualized cost, cost indices, rate of return, payback period, discounted cash flow, optimization in process design, and sizing of chemical engineering equipment such as compressors, heat exchangers, and multistage contactors.

Process Design and Development: General Design Considerations; The Hierarchy of Chemical Process Design; Reactor networks in process flowsheets: Separation systems in process flowsheets: Multicomponent distillation for ideal and non-ideal systems, distillation column sequences, heat integration in distillation columns, Heat exchange networks synthesis and utilities: Energy targets, Introduction to optimization approaches to optimal design, the role of simulations in process design, Design under uncertainty, and failure tolerance, Engineering around variations, Introduction to process integration

Chapter 9: Chemical Technology

Inorganic chemical industries (sulfuric acid, phosphoric acid, Chlor-alkali industry), fertilizers (Ammonia, Urea, SSP, and TSP); natural products industries (Pulp and Paper, Sugar, Oil, and Fats); petroleum refining and petrochemicals; polymerization industries (polyethylene, polypropylene, PVC, and polyester synthetic fibers).

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