In the context of the Indian Freedom Struggle, 16th October, 1905 is well known for which one of the following reasons?
1) The formal proclamation of Swadeshi Movement was made in Calcutta town hall
2) Partition of Bengal came into effect
3) Dadabhai Naoroji declared that the goal of Indian National Congress was Swaraj
4) Lokmanya Tilak started Swadeshi Movement in Poona
The correct answer is Partition of Bengal came into effect .
The correct answer is option 2) Partition of Bengal came into effect.
On 16th October 1905, the British colonial government announced the partition of Bengal. The decision was made by Lord Curzon, the then Viceroy of India, and it aimed to divide the province of Bengal on communal and administrative grounds. The Hindu-majority regions of Bengal were separated from the Muslim-majority regions to create two new provinces, namely East Bengal and Assam (with a Muslim majority) and the Bengal province with the Hindu majority.
The partition of Bengal was opposed by the Indian National Congress and many other political organizations, as it was seen as a deliberate attempt to divide the unity of Bengal on religious lines and weaken the Indian nationalist movement. The partition sparked a massive protest and boycott of British goods, which came to be known as the Swadeshi Movement.
The formal proclamation of the Swadeshi Movement was made on August 7th, 1905, at the Calcutta Town Hall, and it was a direct result of the partition of Bengal. The movement aimed to promote the use of Indian-made goods and to boycott British goods as a means of economic resistance against the British colonial government.
Therefore, option 2) Partition of Bengal came into effect, is the correct answer.